Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
As of December 31, 2017, under the supervision and with the participation of our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, we carried out an evaluation required by the Exchange Act of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures, as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) of the Exchange Act. Based on this evaluation, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer concluded that, as of December 31, 2017, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized, and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms and were effective to provide reasonable assurance that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosures.
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
There have been no changes in our internal control over financial reporting identified in connection with the evaluation required by paragraph (d) of Exchange Act Rules 13a-15 that occurred during the quarter ended December 31, 2017 that materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) of the Exchange Act. The Company’s internal control framework and processes are designed to provide reasonable assurance to management and the board of directors regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements in accordance with the accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. Management has assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017 based on criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission, or COSO, in Internal Control—Integrated Framework (2013). As a result of this assessment, management concluded that, as of December 31, 2017, our internal control over financial reporting was effective.
Certifications of our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer, which are required in accordance with Rule 13a-14 of the Exchange Act, are attached as exhibits to this Annual Report. This "Controls and Procedures" section includes the information concerning the controls evaluation referred to in the certifications, and it should be read in conjunction with the certifications for a more complete understanding of the topics presented.
The Company’s independent registered public accounting firm, Deloitte & Touche LLP, which has direct access to the Company’s board of directors through its Audit Committee, have audited the consolidated financial statements prepared by the Company. Their report on the consolidated financial statements is included in Part II, Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data. Deloitte & Touche LLP has issued an attestation report on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.
Limitations on Controls
Management does not expect that our disclosure controls and procedures or our internal control over financial reporting will prevent or detect all errors or fraud. Any control system, no matter how well designed and operated, is based upon certain assumptions and can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that its objectives will be met. Further, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to error or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and instances of fraud, if any, within the Company have been detected.
Item 9B. Other Information