Impairment of Long-Lived Assets. We recorded asset impairment charges on assets held and used of $15.1 million for 2017 compared to $2.8 million for 2016. Impairment charges for 2017 consisted of theatre properties in the U.S., Colombia, Brazil, Guatemala and Curacao, impacting fifteen of our twenty-seven reporting units. Impairment charges for 2016 consisted of theatre properties in the U.S., Colombia and Ecuador, impacting fourteen of our twenty-seven reporting units. The long-lived asset impairment charges recorded during each of the periods presented were specific to theatres that were directly and individually impacted by increased competition, adverse changes in market demographics, or adverse changes in the development or the conditions of the areas surrounding the theatre. See Notes 1 and 8 to our consolidated financial statements.
Loss on Sale of Assets and Other. We recorded a loss on sale of assets and other of $22.8 million during 2017 compared to $20.4 million during 2016. The loss recorded during 2017 included the retirement of assets due to theatre remodels and closures and the write-off of a favorable lease intangible asset due to the amendment of a theatre lease, partially offset by gains related to the sale of excess land parcels and a gain on a landlord buyout of a theatre lease. The loss recorded during 2016 included the retirement of assets due to theatre remodels and closures, partially offset by a gain on the sale of our investment in RealD stock (see Note 6 to our consolidated financial statements) and a gain on the sale of a land parcel.
Interest Expense. Interest costs incurred, including amortization of debt issue costs, were $105.9 million for 2017 compared to $108.3 million for 2016. The decrease was due to the redemption of our previously outstanding $200.0 million 7.375% senior subordinated notes (the “7.375% Senior Subordinated Notes”) funded by a $225.0 million add-on to our 4.875% senior notes (the “4.875% Senior Notes), which occurred on March 21, 2016, as well as amendments to our senior secured credit facility completed during June and December of 2016 and June of 2017, which, in the aggregate, reduced the rate at which our term loan accrues interest by 100 basis points. See Note 10 to our consolidated financial statements for discussion of our long-term debt.
Foreign Currency Exchange Gain. We recorded a foreign currency exchange gain of $0.9 million during 2017 and a foreign currency exchange gain of $6.5 million during 2016 primarily related to intercompany transactions and changes in exchange rates from the original transaction date until cash settlement. See Notes 1 and 12 to our consolidated financial statements for discussion of foreign currency translation.
Loss on Debt Amendments and Refinancing. We recorded a loss of $0.5 million during 2017 related to amendments to our senior secured credit facility that included a reduction in the interest rate at which our term loan accrues interest, revisions to certain definitions within the agreement, a reduction of the interest rates applicable to the revolving credit line and an extension of the maturity of the revolving credit line. We recorded a loss of $13.4 million during 2016 primarily related to the early redemption of our $200.0 million 7.375% Senior Subordinated Notes. See Note 10 to our consolidated financial statements for discussion of our long-term debt.
Distributions from NCM. We recorded distributions received from NCM of $16.4 million during 2017 and $14.7 million during 2016, which were in excess of the carrying value of our Tranche 1 Investment. See Note 5 to our consolidated financial statements.
Equity in Income of Affiliates. We recorded equity in income of affiliates of $36.0 million during 2017 and $32.0 million during 2016. See Notes 5 and 6 to our consolidated financial statements for information about our equity investments.
Income Taxes. Income tax expense of $79.4 million was recorded for 2017 compared to $103.8 million recorded for 2016. The effective tax rate for 2017 was 23.0%, which included the impact of a one-time benefit of $44.9 million related to the enactment of the Tax Act. See Note 16 to our consolidated financial statements. The effective tax rate for 2016 was 28.8%. We expect the effective tax rate for 2018 to be in a mid-to-high 20% range.